April - June 1804.
- The Ligurian Republic votes to integrate itself into the French Empire; The Ligurian Republic ceases to exist.
- The Russian Empire declares War on the Kingdom of Sweden.
- The French Empire declares War on the Russian Empire.
- The Kingdom of Prussia declares War on the Kingdom of Sweden.
- The Kingdom of Sweden declares War on the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
- The Kingdom of Sweden declares War on the Russian Empire.
- The Kingdom of Sweden declares War on the Kingdom of Prussia.
- The Kingdom of Sardinia declares war on the Russian Empire.
- The Kingdom of Sardinia declares war on the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
- The Third Coalition has been formed by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Among the allied nations are:
- The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
- The Russian Empire
- The Kingdom of Prussia
- The Austrian Empire
- The Third Coalition declares War on France and all of her Allies. (All Members)
- The Anglo-French War has transformed into the War of the Third Coalition.
- The Electorate of Saxony has joined the Third Coalition.
- The Electorate of Saxony has joined the War of the Third Coalition on the side of the Third Coalition.
- The Electorate of Bavaria enters into a Defensive Alliance with the Austrian Empire.
- The Electorate of Hesse has received a letter proposing Friendship between the French Empire and the Electorate of Hesse: The Electorate of Hesse accepts the proposal of friendship and relations are improved, opening the door for future alliance, non-aggression pacts, and other treaties. (66)
- The Duchy of Arenburg has received a letter proposing Friendship between the French Empire and the Duchy of Arenburg: The Duchy of Arenburg agrees to put itself under the French yoke. (86)
- The Electorate of Baden has received a letter proposing Friendship between the French Empire and the Electorate of Baden: The Electorate of Baden agrees to put itself under the French yoke. (95)
- The Duchy of Oldenburg has received a letter proposing Friendship between the French Empire and the Duchy of Oldenburg: The Duchy of Oldenburg refuses the terms outright and views the French Empire as a hostile nation. (6)
- The Duchy of Brunswick has received a letter proposing Friendship between the French Empire and the Duchy of Brunswick: The Duchy of Brunswick refuses the offer of friendship. (38)
- The German States have received a letter proposing Friendship between the French Empire and the German States: The German States refuse the terms outright and view the French Empire as a hostile nation. (5 and 30)
- The Electorate of Salzburg has received a letter proposing Friendship between the French Empire and the Electorate of Salzburg: The Electorate of Salzburg concludes an alliance with the French Empire and joins the war on the French side. (78)
- The Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz has received a letter proposing Friendship between the French Empire and the Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz: The Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz concludes an alliance with the French Empire and joins the war on the French side. (76)
- The Saxon Duchies have received a letter proposing Friendship between the French Empire and the Saxon Duchies: The Saxon Duchies agree to place themselves under the French Yoke. (98)
- The Duchies and Bremen and Verden have received a letter proposing Friendship between the French Empire and the Duchies of Bremen and Verden: The Duchies of Bremen and Verden conclude an alliance with the French empire and join the war on the French side. (75)
- Hostile Act: The Electorate of Bavaria has invaded neighboring German duchies unprovoked.
- Hostile Act: The French Empire has invaded nearby German States on their Rhineland border.
- Hostile Act: The Austrian Empire has invaded the Electorate of Wurttemberg.
- Hostile Act: The French Empire has invaded the Electorate of Wurttemberg.
- Hostile Act: The Electorate of Wurttemberg has invaded a neighboring German duchy.
Third Battle of the Oresund
Third Battle of the Oresund
Defender = Danish-Swedish Navy (Cronstedt): 30 + 3 + 0 + 0 + 0 = 33
Attacker = British Navy (Nelson): 6 + 6 + 6 + 0 + 0 = 18
Major Danish-Swedish Tactical Victory; Major Danish-Swedish Strategic Victory; Horatio Nelson has died!
Following the 1st and 2nd battles of the Oresund, the mighty British Navy was eager to show the arrogant Scandinavians why they are the true rulers of the sea. The British Fleet of the Baltics, withdrawing to regroup and rearm, returned to Nordic Waters. The great and honorable Vice Admiral of the White, Horatio Nelson, was placed in command of the Baltic Fleet. Refitted, rearmed, repaired and reinforced, the fleet numbered about over 30 Ships of the Line and was accompanied by squadrons of frigates and light ships. The British returned to the Oresund in the early days of May, where they met the combined Danish-Scandinavian fleet led by Admiral Cronstedt.
After 2 days of minor skirmishes by light ships, the 2 fleets met once again in the waters of the Oresund, many miles north of Copenhagen. The two great admirals, Nelson and Cronstedt, probed and waited for the right opportunity. Finally, on May 9th, the hour of battle came. The British arrayed themselves expertly into a line of battle while the Danes and Swedes did likewise. At roughly 12:10 PM, Nelson's Flagship, HMS Victory, sent a flag signal out to all ships: "England expects that every man will do his duty." The battle had begun.
Leading the British line of battle was Nelson aboard his flagship the HMS Victory. Cronstedt also led his line of battle, aboard the HSwMS Wladislaff. The British Fleet, confident in their sea faring abilities, started the battle with a general order to advance in column directly into the Swedish-Danish line of battle. The British sailed hastily, deploying all sails and doing every little thing humanly possible to make their ships sail faster. Admiral Cronstedt, realizing what was afoot, quickly maneuvered his fleet into better positions to meet the British who were now sailing head on directly into the middle of their line! The Nordic cannons were made ready, and as Nelson's leading flagship began to come into range, the Nordic fleet began firing.
The battle raged for 4 hours. The Danish-Swedish fleet, through superior position and the crossing of the British fleet's "T", reigned supreme throughout the battle. Despite superior seamanship, gunnery, morale and experience, the British Fleet simply could not effectively break the Danish-Swedish line of battle. Nelson's flagship, the HMS Victory, received crippling raking fire in the beginning stages of the battle, and although Nelson managed to push through with a small number of ships, the damage had already been done. Nelson himself was killed in the first hour of battle; a raking volley from Swedish ship tore through the HMS Victory. Nelson was hit square in the chest by a Swedish cannonball. He died instantly. The British fleet, ignorant of horrible death of their admiral, continued the fight until the Danes and Swedes closed in as well. Desperate to get into ship-to-ship action, the British Fleet continued to sail as fast as they could into the middle of the Danish-Swedish line. Few ships managed to get into the melee they so desired however, as the raking volleys of the Nords proved to be too much to push through. Many of the British ships were demasted mid melee, while some were boarded and captured by Danes or Swedes until recaptured by other British ships. The battle dragged on for hours, until finally the British began faltering. News of the death of Nelson soon spread throughout the ranks, and the sight of the Danish-Swedish fleet defiantly raking ship after ship with volleys of grape and solid shot was the final nail in the coffin. The British fleet soon began to withdraw, while many of the ships were already routed or in the process of fleeing. The battle was completely and irrevocably lost on all fronts for the British.
The British Fleet, suffering a crippling defeat in the waters of the Oresund once again, fled the area in a disorganized fashion back to the safety of England. The British Fleet suffered the loss of 12 ships of the line, 10 sunk while 2 were captured, and a third of their light ships and frigates. The combined Danish-Swedish fleet on the other hand fought remarkably well, losing only 5 ships of the line, 3 Swedish and 2 Danish, all of which were sunk, and only a small number of light ships being destroyed or scuttled. The British also suffered the unfortunate loss of a great admiral, Horatio Nelson. The Scandinavians rule the Baltic Sea. Whether or not the British will tolerate such arrogance from another country threatening their naval supremacy or return for vengeance in the future is anybody's guess.
Battle of East Friesland
Battle of East Friesland
Defender = French Army: 27 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 3 = 30
Attacker = British Army (Wellesley): 10 + 6 + 3 + 0 + 0 = 19
Minor British Tactical Victory; French Strategic Victory
While the Third Battle of the Oresund was raging leagues away in the Baltic Sea, in East Friesland the British attempt a courageous invasion of recently-occupied French territories in North Western Germany. A large British army, led by one Arthur Wellesley, accidentally found itself staring down a significant French force en route to an unknown location. A pitched battle ensued on a field in East Friesland.
The British Army, led by General Arthur Wellesley, found itself blocked by a sizable French Army, estimated to be about 20 thousand men strong. The French Army deployed itself parallel to the British, and minor cavalry skirmishes took place between both sides. The next day, on April 27th, both sides clashed in pitched and heavy battle. The British moved first, advancing steadily from the North and North-East in good fashion, the British "Redcoats" steadfast despite accurate artillery fire from the French. The French, in contrast to their stereotypical Elan and fervor, held firm while swarms of voltigeurs harassed the stationary British as they stood firing in thickly packed lines. Combined fire from skirmishers and artillery, as well as slowly advancing French line infantry caused the British left to falter, and the attack from the North East was repelled for about an hour. The British middle and right flanks, seeing their left flank curl and get pushed back, were also forced to give ground to the slowly advancing Frenchmen. A courageous bayonet charge by French infantry on the British center further persuaded the British to fall back and regroup for another attack. The French continued their attack however, and slowly but surely pushed the British back to their own side of the battlefield, until the regrouping and consolidating British posed too much of a threat for the attack to continue. The British counterattack began at roughly 15 past 3, by then both sides were beginning to tire from the heavy fighting. Wellesly, fearing getting caught between this army and another French Army coming to reinforce, however, was unwilling to commit all of his forces to the battle, and kept about 1/5th of his force in reserve. The British counterattack, though garnering significant gains at the start, slowly lost momentum and both sides found themselves locked in a stalemate unwilling to move. By 6:45 PM, the fighting had largely stopped besides a few engagements simmering out on the field. The British Army and the French Army found themselves being forced to call the battle a draw, as there was no clear victor. The British, eager to crush the French Army before another could reinforce it, prepared for another battle the next day.
The following morning however, the British soldiers awoke to find the field devoid of any Frenchmen. The French Army had withdrawn from the battlefield! The British Army declared the battle a resounding victory, as they had driven the army from the field and could now continue to their objective. However, a discovery shortly after crushed the newfound joy in many British officers, especially Wellesley. The French Army was not as big as they had previously estimated. The army they thought to be 20 thousand strong, after receiving reports from all of the men engaged in battle that day, was actually less than 10 thousand men! Joy turned to bitterness as the army realized that they had just let a numerically inferior French Army slip from their grasp. The army could be anywhere by now, and if the direction the French had left in gave any hints, they were already miles ahead of the British nearing the key city of Emden. The British victory was anything but.
The British Army lost 9,000 men, with 8 thousand being killed or wounded, 750 being taken prisoner, and 250 going missing. Furthermore, the high cost of the battle and the inconclusive result of it causes doubt in the minds of some of the army's soldiers and officers. Rumors of another larger French Army being in the region circulate throughout its ranks as they continue on their journey. The French Army lost 1,520 men, with 1,000 being killed or wounded and 520 being taken prisoner. Furthermore, both the withdraw of the French Army and the possibility of another French army in the area giving chase to the British have forced the British to divert from their intended objective. Where the army has gone now, remains unclear.
Siege of Stralsund
Siege & Storming of Stralsund
Defender = Swedish Army: 10 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = 10
Attacker = Prussian Army: 9 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = 9
Prussian Minor Tactical Victory; Prussian Major Strategic Victory
Swedish Pomerania poses a great threat to Prussia. The threat of a Swedish or even French invasion through the Swedish foothold in Europe is too great of a threat for Prussia to simply ignore. It appears Prussia, through quick action, has eradicated one threat of many to their borders.
A large Prussian force, estimated to be at least 15,000 strong, fell upon Swedish Pomerania and quickly besieged the Swedish coastal city of Stralsund. The siege continued for 2 and a half months, with the Prussians launching constant but sporadic probing attacks to try to find weaknesses in the city's defenses. The Swedes, cut off from the rest of the region, fortified and readied themselves for a lengthy siege.
Perhaps it was a hope that reinforcements from Sweden were on their way that contributed to the downfall of the besieged. Perhaps it was simply inadequate supplies and manpower to properly defend such a large area from so many attackers. Perhaps it was simply blind stupid hope. Whatever it was, the storming of Stralsund proved to be a resounding defeat for the Swedes. Despite fighting desperately to defend the city, numbers and time were not on the side of the Swedes. After 2 and a half months of siege and constant probing, the Prussians launched their attack. The Prussian troops, well rested and well fed, launched their attack at midnight. Marching silently through the night, they advanced slowly in good order towards the fortifications of the sleeping Swedes. The first wave of Prussians marched up to within 50 metres of the Swedish battlements until they were finally spotted by Swedish sentries. As the alarm was sounded and drums were beat to call the garrison to combat, the Prussians lunged forward. The night was filled with the roars and cries of men. All around the city soldiers charged shouting "Für das Vaterland!". The overwhelmed Swedes fought desperately and fought hard. When the Prussians took the battlements, the fighting moved to the barricades. When the Prussians took the barricades, the Swedes moved to the streets. When the Prussians took the streets, the Swedes moved into the port district. The Swedes kept retreating and kept fighting until their backs were to the waters of the Baltic. The city was falling all around them, with many sections of the Swedish garrison surrendering as the fighting turned against them. By sunrise of the next morning, the entire Swedish garrison had surrendered and the city of Stralsund was firmly in Prussian hands, and with it Sweden's foothold in Europe.
A small handful of Swedes managed to row across to the nearby island and continued to hold out for a few days. However, they too soon surrendered peacefully. Resistance has been squashed and Swedish Pomerania is now in Prussian control. The Prussians lost 2,000 men killed and wounded, while the Swedes lost only 180 killed and wounded in battle. However, the entire remaining garrison, all 1,820 men, surrendered to the Prussian Army, bringing total Swedish casualties up to 2,000 men.
Battle of Ulm
Battle of Ulm
Defender = French Army (Napoleon): 24 + 9 + 0 + 0 + 3 = 36
Attacker = Austrian Army (Archduke Charles): 13 + 3 + 0 + 0 + 0 = 16
French Tactical Victory; French Strategic Victory
Napoleon Bonaparte is both greatly admired and greatly feared throughout Europe. Accounts of his military prowess are well known. However, there are many who consider themselves worthy challengers or even equals to "The Corsican". Though many claim to be worthy of doing battle against Napoleon, no worthy opponent has dared face Napoleon on the field. Until now.
The Austrian Army under command of Archduke Charles recently entered Bavaria, shocking many aboard and in Austria. What makes this Austrian "intrusion" even more bizarre is the almost synchronized military invasions of nearby German states by the two electorates of Bavaria and Wurttemberg. Whether these events are related is unclear. What is clear however is that the Bavarian army made no efforts to meet the Austrians on the field, and some say they were even welcomed by the local populace. Upon entering Wurttemberg, however, the narrative changes greatly. The Austrian Army lead by Archduke Charles treated the Electorate of Wurttemberg far worse than they did Bavaria. Everywhere the Elector of Wurttemberg had government, the Austrian Army tore away the Wurttemberger government and placed the land under Austrian control. The Austrians were invading Wurttemberg!
The situation continues to grow more confusing as time passes as well. The Austrian Army has made it their mission to annex and occupy Wurttemberg, however even though the Wurttembergers are technically their enemies, they do not attack or even bother units of Wurttemberg. A significant contingent of Wurttembergers has reportedly joined the Bavarians who are annexing smaller German counties and states. Rumors of a possible alliance or friendship or even bribery between Bavaria, Wurttemberg, or Austria circulate throughout the region, with rumors differing depending on who is asked. Even more shocking, rumors of another contingent of Wurttembergers going west in the direction of the French makes the situation in the region all the more confusing. Especially once one thinks about the number of foreign troops "trespassing" on Wurttemberger land...
The rumors of Wurttembergers joining the French has actually turned out to be true! On April 29th. the two massive armies, both around 100,000 strong, met near the city of Stuttgart in Wurttemberg. The Austrians, attempting to avoid a pitched battle away from friendly territory, began a withdraw westwards. However, the almost-lighting speed of the French Army under Napoleon allowed them to catch up to and corner the Austrian Army at Ulm, where a pitched battle took place.
The Austrians held the lands surrounding the city of Ulm. Despite having slightly more men, the Austrians put themselves on the defensive for the battle. Having heard stories of Napoleon's military prowess, Archduke Charles was not about to jeopardize Austria's fighting capabilities due to his incompetence. Napoleon, having less men but arguably better and significantly more guns, put himself on the offensive and began to encircle the city. As the encirclement began to close, the Archduke saw what was coming and committed his men to heated battle. On May 6th at 11 AM, the Battle of Ulm began. French artillery thundered and roared as the Austrians were heavily bombarded by cannonballs and howitzer shells. Large sections of the city were destroyed and much of it set on fire by the artillery barrage. Shortly after noon, following artillery and cavalry skirmishes, came the attacks of the French infantry. With their characteristic voltigeur swarms leading the advance, the French infantry advanced in mixed order ready to push with shot and steel. The French attacks were met by walls of Austrian lead as they fought in the rigid lines characteristic of the time of Frederick the Great. The French in particular were quite stunned with how stagnant the Austrian lines are; despite being peppered by accurate skirmisher fire and decimated by intense artillery barrages the Austrian lines refused to leave their line formation. In contrast, many regiments of French infantry reformed from lines and attack columns to thin lines of 2 ranks or even 1 rank when they were met with Austrian artillery fire. Despite all their effort, the Austrians found themselves being pushed and squeezed on all fronts, and the battle was looking to be more and more unwinnable as the hours passed. Finally, once the outer limits of the city were taken by the French, Archduke Charles gave the order to withdraw eastward. The Austrians executed a fighting retreat, though even then the French continued to push and harass them, particularly with cavalry and light infantry. The French soon took the city, and shortly thereafter the field. The French declared the battle a resounding victory!
The situation that has been created in southern Germany and the battle that was the result of the many actions from key actors in the region are very interesting to say the least. While troops from Baden and Wurttemberg did participate in the battle on the French side, contributing total about 5,000 troops, the nearby Bavarian armies did not join in the battle at all on either side! Despite (albeit conflicting) rumors of alliances. Whatever the case may be, what is true is that the battle was, overall, a French victory. The French Army under Napoleon suffered only 15,200 casualties, 15,00 being killed and wounded while 200 were captured. The Austrian Army under Archduke Charles suffered 36,000 casualties, 26,00 being killed and wounded while 10,000 men were captured. Furthermore, the Austrian Army has retreated somewhere into Bavaria while the French Army has held near the disputed/new border between Wurttemberg and Bavaria at Ulm. What may become of this situation is anybody's guess.